The effects of climate change require a rethinking of energy supply. As one of the largest industrial producers of green energy, the paper industry can make a significant contribution. It supplies households with renewable electricity and waste heat and contributes to grid stability.
The paper industry is energy-intensive. Its energy demand is 16,000 GWh, of which 4,400 GWh is electricity and 11,600 GWh is steam (heat). (2020)
However, the industry is also a major energy producer. with a total of 16,100 GWh of energy raised in 2020.
The majority of energy sources are renewable. At 60 %. residual materials from production such as bark, bio-alkali or sludge from wastewater treatment are used.
10 % of the total energy from renewables in Austria comes from the paper industry.
Exploiting the energy potential of industrial companies
Already today, the energy requirements of more than 100,000 households can be covered with electricity and district heating from the paper industry. This type of decentralized energy supply is energy-efficient, saves CO2 and helps to secure the site. There is still unused potential in industrial waste heat utilisation. The more suppliers, the better they can balance out supply fluctuations. A heat register, which compares heat sinks and sources, ensures that existing potentials take precedence over subsidized new plants. By adapting their energy management, companies can level out fluctuations in the electricity grid (system-beneficial behaviour). These are caused by the volatile character of e.g. wind and photovoltaics. In order to be able to fully exploit these potentials, the companies need a supportive legal framework and access to the various reserve markets. Exclusive criteria, such as mandatory decommissioning notifications, should be rejected.
regional energy supply
Efficiency criteria for the promotion of renewables
Efficiency is the most important key to the energy solution, whether it is consumption, production or promotion of energy. The new regulation of green electricity subsidies has been hotly debated in recent years. Recently, a proposal for a Renewable Energy Expansion Act was presented by the German government. However, there is still room for improvement in the area of efficiency. With the greatest possible market proximity and system responsibility, it must be ensured that those plants are promoted which generate green electricity at the lowest cost with maximumCO2 savings. In the case of plants that are dependent on raw materials, it is important that the degree of fuel utilisation is as high as possible so that maximum energy yield is achieved with the raw material used.
Green gas as an alternative?
Natural gas plays a central role in the heat and power supply of industrial processes, as well as for households and commerce. Green gas" (biogas and green hydrogen) is being discussed as an alternative to natural gas. However, it is questionable whether sufficient raw material potentials are available for this. It is therefore important to clarify in advance questions of raw material availability and logistics, technical application possibilities, economic efficiency and its financing. In order to achieve the objective of green gas shares, existing potentials must also be taken into account, even if they are used directly without grid feed-in. In any case, the paper industry will be an important partner both as a gas consumer and as a producer of biogas from residual and waste materials.
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Fair competitive conditions for ancillary energy costs
Different framework conditions in individual EU countries distort intra-Community competition. Austrian companies, for example, have a clear locational disadvantage in terms of ancillary energy costs. In Germany alone, industrial companies receive energy policy relief from various titles. This results in cost disadvantages for Austrian companies amounting to millions, which have to be compensated elsewhere. This gap was exacerbated by the separation of the German-Austrian electricity price zone in October 2018, where it is necessary to harmonize the competitive conditions within the EU.
PAPER INDUSTRY SUPPLIES DISTRICT
HEATING TO HOUSEHOLDS IN THE REGION
The paper industry has been supplying its immediate surroundings with waste heat for years. A gratifying major project in this context is the 11 km long district heating pipeline the Sappi Gratkorn paper mill to Graz. The project can supply 40,000 households in Graz with waste heat and save a total of 50,000 tons of CO2 per year.
The paper industry is producing less in the crisis year 2020 and has to accept a significant drop in sales. Nevertheless, it is focusing on the climate targets.